Latin is a member of the broad family of Italic languages. Its alphabet, the Latin alphabetemerged from the Old Italic alphabetswhich in turn were derived from the Greek and Phoenician scripts. Historical Latin came from the prehistoric language of the Latium region, specifically around the River Tiberwhere Roman civilization first developed.
How and Older latin men Latin came to be spoken by the Romans are questions that have long been debated. Various influences on Latin of Celtic dialects in northern Italythe non-Indo-European Etruscan language in Central Italyand the Greek of southern Italy have been detected, but when these influences entered the native Latin is not known for certain.
Surviving Latin literature consists almost entirely of Classical Latin in its broadest definition. It includes a polished and sometimes highly stylized literary language sometimes termed Golden Latin, which spans the 1st century BC and the early years of the Older latin men century AD.
However, throughout the history of ancient Rome the spoken language differed in both grammar and vocabulary from that of literature, and is referred to as Vulgar Latin. In addition to Latin, the Greek language was often spoken by the well-educated elite, who studied it in school and acquired Greek tutors from among the influx of enslaved educated Greek prisoners of war, captured during the Roman conquest of Greece. In the eastern half of the Roman Empire, which became the Byzantine Empirethe Greek Koine of Hellenism remained current and was never replaced by Latin.
It continued to influence the Vulgar Latin that evolved into the Eastern Romance languages. The name Latin derives from the Italic tribal group named Latini that settled around the 10th century BC in Latium, and the dialect Older latin men by these people.
The Italic languages form a centum subfamily of the Indo-European language family. These include the RomanceGermanicCelticand Hellenic languages, and a number of extinct ones.
The most extreme case occurs with short vowels in medial open syllables i. All are reduced to a single vowel, which appears as i in most cases, but Older latin men sometimes o before rand u before an l which is followed by o or u.
In final syllables, short e and o are usually raised to i and urespectively. Consonants are generally more stable. However, the Indo-European voiced aspirates bh, dh, gh, gwh are not maintained, becoming f, f, h, f respectively at the Older latin men of a word, but usually b, d, g, v elsewhere.
Note that non-initial dh becomes b next to r or ue. Old English sweostor "sister". Of the original eight cases of Proto-Indo-EuropeanLatin inherited six: It is believed that the earliest surviving inscription is a seventh-century B.
Old Latin also called Early Latin or Archaic Latin refers to the period of Latin texts before the age of Classical Latinextending from textual fragments that Older latin men originated in the Roman monarchy to the written language of the late Roman republic about 75 BC. Almost all the writing of its earlier phases is inscriptional. Some phonological characteristics of older Latin are the case endings -os and -om later Latin -us and -um.
This had implications for declension: Classical Latin is the form of the Latin language used by the ancient Romans in Classical Latin literature. In the latest and narrowest philological model its use spanned the Golden Age of Latin literature — broadly the 1st century BC and the early 1st century AD — possibly extending to the Silver Age — broadly the 1st and 2nd centuries.
It was a polished written literary language based on the refined spoken language of the upper classes. Classical Latin differs from Old Latin: In the currently used philological model this period represents Older latin men peak of Latin literature.
Since the earliest post-classical times the Latin of those authors has been an ideal norm of the best Latin, which other writers should follow.
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In reference to Roman literature, the Silver age covers the first two centuries AD directly after the Golden age. Literature from the Silver Age is more embellished with mannerisms. Late Latin is the administrative and literary language of Late Antiquity in the late Roman empire and states that succeeded the Older latin men Roman Empire over the same range.
By its broadest definition it is dated from about AD to about AD when it was replaced by written Romance languages. Opinion concerning whether it should be considered classical is divided. The authors of the period looked back to a classical period they believed should be imitated and yet their styles were often classical.
According to the narrowest definitions, Late Latin did not exist and the authors of the times are to be considered medieval. Vulgar Latin in Latin, sermo vulgaris is a blanket term covering vernacular dialects of the Latin language spoken from earliest times in Italy until the latest dialects of the Western Roman EmpireOlder latin men still further, evolved into the early Romance languages — whose writings began to appear about the 9th century.
This spoken Latin differed from the literary language of Classical Latin in its grammar and vocabulary. It is likely to have evolved over time, with some features not appearing until the late Empire. Other features Older latin men likely to have been in place much earlier. Because there are few phonetic transcriptions of the daily speech of these Latin speakers to match, for example, the post-classical Appendix Probi Vulgar Latin must be studied mainly by indirect methods.
Knowledge of Vulgar Latin comes from a variety of sources. First, the comparative method Older latin men items of the mother language from the attested Romance languages. Also, prescriptive grammar texts from the Late Latin period condemn some usages as errors, providing insight into how Latin was actually spoken.
The solecisms and non-Classical usages occasionally found in late Latin texts also shed light on the spoken language. A windfall source lies in the chance finds of wax tablets such as those found at Vindolanda on Hadrian's Wall. The Roman cursive script was used on these tablets. The Romance languagesa major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire.
The Romance languages have more than million native speakers worldwide, mainly in the AmericasEuropeand Africaas well as in many smaller regions scattered through the world. All Romance languages descend from Vulgar Older latin men, the language of soldiers, settlers, and slaves of the Roman Empirewhich was Older latin men different from that of the Roman literati.
Between BC and ADthe expansion of the Empire and the administrative and educational policies of Rome made Vulgar Latin the dominant vernacular language over a wide area which stretched from the Iberian Peninsula to the west coast of the Black Sea.
During the Empire's decline and after its collapse and fragmentation in the 5th century, Vulgar Latin began to evolve independently within each local area, and eventually diverged into dozens of distinct languages.
The overseas empires established by SpainPortugal and France after the 15th century then spread these languages to other continents — about two thirds of all Romance speakers are now outside Europe. In spite of the multiple influences of pre-Roman languages and later invasions, the phonologymorphologylexiconand syntax of all Romance languages are predominantly derived from Vulgar Latin.
As a result, the group shares a number of linguistic features that set it apart from other Indo-European branches. Ecclesiastical Latin sometimes called Church Latin is a broad and analogous term referring to the Latin language as used in documents of the Roman Catholic Churchits liturgies mainly in past times and during some periods the preaching of its ministers. Ecclesiastical Latin is not a single style: In terms of stylistic periods, it belongs to Late Latin in the Late Latin period, Medieval Latin in the Medieval Period, and so on through to the present.
One may say that, starting from Older latin men church's decision in the Older latin men Late Latin period to use a simple and unornamented language that would be comprehensible to ordinary Latin speakers and yet still be elegant and correct, church Latin is usually a discernible substyle within the major style of the period.
Its authors in the New Latin period are typically paradigmatic of the best Latin and that is true in contemporary times. The decline in its use within the last years has been a matter of regret to some, who have formed organizations inside and outside the church to support Older latin men use and to use it. Medieval Latinthe literary and administrative Latin used in the Middle Agesexhibits much variation between individual authors, mainly due to poor communications in those times between different regions.
The individuality is characterised by a different range of solecisms and by the borrowing of different words from Vulgar Latin or from local vernaculars. Some styles show features intermediate between Latin and Romance languages; others are closer to classical Latin. The stylistic variations came to an end with the rise of nation states and new empires in the Renaissance period, and the authority of early universities imposing a new style: Renaissance Latin is a name given Older latin men the Latin written during the European Renaissance in the 14thth centuries, particularly distinguished by the distinctive Latin style developed by the humanist movement.
Ad fontes was the general cry of the humanists, and as such their Latin style sought to purge Latin of the medieval Latin vocabulary and stylistic accretions that it had acquired in the centuries after the fall of Older latin men Roman Empire. They looked to Golden Age Latin literature, and especially to Cicero in prose and Virgil in poetryas the arbiters of Latin style. They abandoned the use of the sequence and other accentual forms of meterand sought instead to revive the Greek formats that were used in Latin poetry during the Roman period.
The humanists condemned the large body of medieval Latin literature as " gothic " — for them, a term of abuse — and believed instead that only ancient Latin from the Roman period was "real Latin".
The humanists also sought to purge written Latin of medieval developments in its orthography. They insisted, for example, that ae be written out in full wherever it occurred in classical Latin; medieval scribes often wrote e instead of ae. They were much Older latin men zealous than medieval Latin writers in distinguishing t from c: Their reforms even affected handwriting: Erasmus even proposed that the then-traditional pronunciations of Latin be abolished in favour of his reconstructed version of classical Latin pronunciation.
The humanist plan to remake Latin was largely successful, at least in education. Schools now taught the humanistic spellings, and encouraged the study of the texts selected by the humanists, largely to the exclusion of later Latin Older latin men. On the other hand, while humanist Latin was an elegant literary languageit became much harder to write books about lawmedicinescience or contemporary politics in Latin while observing all of the humanists' norms of vocabulary purging and Older latin men usage.
Because humanist Latin lacked precise vocabulary to deal with modern issues, their reforms accelerated the transformation of Latin from a working language to an object of antiquarian study. Their attempts at literary work, especially poetry, often have a strong element of pastiche.
New Latin or Neo-Latin is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in international scientific vocabulary and systematics. The term came into widespread use towards the end of the s among linguists and scientists.